What does an ST10 test screen for?
An ST10 test screens for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes
simplex I, herpes simplex II, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma
hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasm
urealyticum and chancroid.
What is herpes?
Herpes is a chronic (long-term) infection caused by herpes
simplex virus (HSV). The two types of HSV that cause the disease
are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). Both
viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted between people
through direct contact. The type of herpes disease that arises is
dependent on the site of the body that is infected. The two most
common herpes infections are oral and genital herpes.
Herpes simplex 1 most commonly causes oral herpes, but it can also
cause genital herpes. Herpes infections often manifest as small
painful blisters which break open resulting in ulcers. Oral herpes
lesions (cold sores) can appear anywhere on the face, but they
typically form in or around the mouth.
Herpes simplex 2 most commonly causes genital herpes, but it can
also cause oral herpes in rare cases. Genital herpes is a sexually
transmitted infection that can affect the genitals, buttocks,
thighs and anal area. Symptoms of infection can include the
appearance of small, painful blisters that burst to leave open
sores in the affected areas, pain when passing urine and flu-like
Once an individual becomes infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2, the virus
remains in the body and lies dormant in nerves close to the
original site of infection. In response to certain triggers (e.g.
ultraviolet light exposure, stress and hormonal changes), the virus
can reactivate causing lesions to reoccur.
How is herpes transmitted?
HSV-1 and HSV-2 can infect multiple sites of the body and can be
- via direct contact between the contagious area and broken skin
via saliva (with someone with oral herpes)
- by having unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex/sharing sex
toys (with someone with genital herpes)
- from a mother to her baby during childbirth (genital
Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be passed on by people who show no signs
There is currently no cure for herpes. However, the symptoms can
often be managed with antiviral medication.
What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is an STI caused by a minute parasite called
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Also referred to as "Trich",
the infection affects both women and men, though women are more
likely to be affected and experience symptoms.
The parasite is usually transmitted from one person to another
during unprotected vaginal sex; however it can also be transmitted
by sharing objects such as sex toys.
Up to half of all infected individuals experience no symptoms of
trichomoniasis; hence, many people do not realise they are
infected. If symptoms do present, they may include:
Women: soreness and itching around the vagina, pain/discomfort
during sex or urination and a change in vaginal discharge.
Men: pain during urination, soreness and swelling around the head
of the penis or foreskin and a thin white penile discharge.
Trichomoniasis can be effectively treated with a course of
What is Mycoplasma hominis?
Mycoplasma hominis is a minute bacterium that is
present in small quantities in the urinary and genital tracts of
An infection with Mycoplasma hominis can arise without
sexual activity, as a result of bacterial overgrowth; however, it
can also be transmitted via unprotected vaginal sex, sharing sex
toys, or from an infected mother to her child during
Mycoplasma hominis symptoms
Symptoms of Mycoplasma hominis infection are similar to
those of chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and symptomless infections are
also common. Left untreated, Mycoplasma hominis infection
can lead to urethritis in women and men and also increases the risk
of vaginitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women.
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG)
What is Mycoplasma genitalium?
Mycoplasma genitalium is a bacterium that causes a
common but largely unknown STI. Recent studies estimate that as
many as 1 in 100 adults aged 16 to 44 are infected with this
MG is known to be transmitted from person-to-person through
unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex, and it frequently occurs
with other STIs, making it difficult to diagnose.
One of the most common causes of urethritis in men, MG has also
been associated with bacterial vaginosis in women.
Mycoplasma genitalium symptoms
Most MG infections are asymptomatic (don't have any symptoms).
Therefore, many individuals are unaware that they are infected. If
symptoms do present, they are similar to those of chlamydia and
gonorrhoea infections, as are the potential long-term complications
which may include PID and endometritis.
What is Ureaplasma urealyticum?
Like Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum is a
bacterium that commonly occurs naturally in the urogenital tract of
humans but can cause disease in the event of overgrowth. As such,
it is not considered a classical STI, but it is very contagious and
can be transmitted through sexual contact.
Ureaplasma urealyticum symptoms
Ureaplasma urealyticum infections are frequently
asymptomatic and do not often lead to problems; however, in some
individuals an untreated infection can be associated with
Complications of infection with this bacteria can include
infertility, premature or still birth, meningitis, pneumonia and
Ureaplasma urealyticum treatment
Ureaplasma urealyticum infections can be treated with
What is chancroid?
Chancroid is an STI caused by Heamophilus ducreyi
bacteria, the leading cause of genital ulceration. The disease is
most common in Asia and Africa and affects more men than women,
particularly uncircumcised men.
The bacteria is found in the (highly contagious) ulcers that
form on the genitals of infected individuals, and the infection can
be transmitted from person-to-person during contact with the
infected area during vaginal, oral or anal sex.
As chancroid usually presents with genital ulcers, in the early
stages it is often mistaken for syphilis. Unlike syphilis sores,
however, chancroid ulcers are painful and can grow much larger in
Other symptoms of chancroid may include genital tenderness, pain
when urinating, enlarged lymph nodes, pain during bowel movements
and rectal bleeding.
Chancroid is easily treated with a single dose of